• Tag Archives Natural Gas
  • Heating Oil vs. Natural Gas Heating Cost Crossover, Again.

    http://oilprice.com/…/Is-This-The-Most-Bearish-Oil-Report-O…

    We are back in the $45/BBL Oil Barrel Price range. As we have prior blogged on our site, #2 Heating Oil is now again the Lowest Cost per Million BTU heating fuel in our region, including Natural Gas. This value is equated via. application of Appliance AFUE Efficiencies of 87% and 95% for oil & gas, respectively.

    For the third concurrent year we have recommended that our clients not purchase “Pre-Pay Heating Oil Contracts” and seek participation in Fuel Buying Clubs/Groups. The current and potential financial benefits are substantial.

    It further appears that this will be a heating season repetitive condition.

    Updated: 01/02/19 P.D.M., Sr.


  • Oil & Natural Gas as Heating Fuels Equate @ $45/bbl

    By our calculation #2 Heating Oil and Natural Gas equate at an approximate Crude Oil Price per Barrel of $45 in our locale (Northern New England). There are obviously many factors that contribute and must be individually qualified.

    Refer to our prior posting on “The Heating Blog” entitled“Oil Again The Cheap Heat ………….. “for procedural detail. Note that it was published with Oil @ $30/bbl this past January.

    Of particular note is to always delineate between a “Delivered” vs. a “Distributed” Fuel. Whereas you purchase a quantity of fuel upon delivery (Oil, Propane, Wood, Coal, etc.), Natural Gas & Electricity are piped/wired to your location and you necessarily pay “service charges” for their facilities usage, maintenance, profit, etc. Factoring your “distributed fuel” bill is simple. Extract the actual cost for “fuel” and divide it into your total bill. The resulting “factor” of 1.XX must be used to multiply any stated “distributed fuel” cost for an actual one. Note that this “factor” is always changing and is particularly dramatic when comparing mid-summer and mid winter fuel costs.

    You will note that the only two viable heating fuels at present are Natural Gas and #2 Heating Oil. Even our regional “Fuels of Opportunity” as we refer, Cord Wood & Wood Pellets, as purchased are far less economic than generally perceived. Even “free” (self sourced and provided) Cord Wood is arguably uneconomic in use, particularly in our experience when purchasing and servicing Exterior Wood Boilers, a regional fad.

    To achieve an “apples to apples” heating fuel comparison you must use a contemporary appliance cost and performance for the fuels being considered. We use a 95% AFUE average value for Natural Gas & LP (Propane) Appliances and an 87% AFUE for Heating Oil. The Oil vs. Gas Heating Appliance Cost must also  always be considered in calculation, the Gas Appliances being pricier than their Oil equivalents.

    The further unwritten and unstated longevity of Gas vs. Oil Installed Systems must be quantified. You are not going to obtain system life expectancy from your “salesman”, who at best quotes Warranties (if you insist) nor provides maintenance histories. These come from the “old sergeants in the trenches” ….. independent service personnel who daily deal with prior work. Unfortunately they are too few, their voices are seldom heard nor are generally known, overshadowed by the self-anointed trade professionals and marketeers. We talk to the Sergeants …..

    Please avail yourselves of our extensive “The Heating Blog” Library on our website for further detail to your particular situation.


  • THE DELTA-T ECM CIRCULATOR — The “Automatic Transmission” for Boilers

    After speaking on-site  with a local customer about his system, he inquired as to what else we were doing. A mistake on his part.

    Both of us having differing technical backgrounds I launched into an inspired dissertation of our application of Delta-T ECM Circulation to Residential FHW Heating Systems. Obviously very interested, a running Q & A exchange of increasing technical depth ensued to the point of my noting he was developing that “deer in the headlights” look of incomplete understanding.

    We engineering types have a terrible habit of technically overloading our audiences, not as an “ego-trip”, but to inform as effectively as possible — we think!

    Needing to salvage the situation I paused, desperately searching for that inspired “bolt of lightening” to strike and clarify the atmosphere. By seeming grace, it came immediately! “I’m putting Automatic Transmissions on Boilers.” Yeah”, he responded, “that makes complete sense. Good idea!” Our further conversation became an analogy of FHW Heating Systems to Automobiles, surprisingly clearing our technical disparages. To expound …..

    After all, hot water boilers and automobile engines are both truly “heat engines”. An automobile engine must convert as much fuel combustion energy into mechanical propulsion power as possible via pistons, crankshafts, etc. Less than 60% becomes useful power, the remainder is dissipated as waste heat. The hot water boiler on the other hand necessarily converts its fuel combustion energy directly into useful heat at up to 97% efficiency!

    The automobile uses a transmission to adapt its mechanical power to control vehicle propulsion. A variety of gears, pumps, valves, etc. are used to accomplish this. The hot water boiler conversely needs only to move heated water (via a pump) exactingly to ideally acclimate our heated areas and (optionally) our domestic hot water (DHW).

    The Delta-T ECM (Differential Temperature) Variable Speed Circulator (Pump) is that ideal “boiler transmission” that delivers heated water most efficiently to maintain our comfort. So efficiently does it do so as to reduce system fuel consumption by up to 15% and electrical consumption by up to 85% as documented by Taco, Inc. Published Testing Results.

    No longer is heating system efficiency measured solely (and inaccurately) by the Boiler AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) Rating, but the aggregate of Boiler, Distribution and Radiation Efficiencies. There are THREE (3) Elements in a hydronic heating system! Just as in Sulky Racing, it’s the combination of the horse, the jockey and the buggy that wins races.

    Even more exciting  is the opportunity provided by the Delta-T ECM Circulator to most efficiently configure a FHW Heating System, which we have done very effectively. Refer to our other, recently published Delta-T Blogs on this site that detail our development, field testing and observations of our systems.

    Our “Packaged Delta-T ECM Hydronic Heating Appliance™” (Patents Pending)exhibits the following attributes in direct comparison to the typical “conventionally installed” system:

    1. Has a higher Combined Boiler AFUE and Delta-T ECM Distribution (System) Efficiency than achievable with any “conventional” system configuration.
    2. Consumes less fuel and electrical power than any equivalently sized system.
    3. Our Integrated Boiler/Indirect Water Heater System occupies 1/3 to 1/2 the floor-space of others.
    4. Our proprietary Fully-Iron & Cast near-boiler piping maximizes durability and distribution performance using fewer materials.
    5. Further combining a High-Mass Boiler with an All-Stainless Indirect Water Heater assures a dramatically projected economic life (30 years or more?).
    6. A true universal, multi-fuel Appliance. Just change the burner —– not the system!
    7. Provides, Simple, Durable, Efficient and Cost-Effective FHW Heating.

    So yes, we do put “Automatic Transmissions” on Boilers!

    Author’s Note: Updated 07/23/2018


  • HEATING FUEL SELECTION – FROM AN ENGINEER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Heating fuel selection has become more than a casual topic in this currently tenuous economic situation, and likely to be an extended one. Unfortunately the picture is both clouded and distorted by the contemporary economic, political and media rhetoric. From an engineering perspective however the overcast is dissipating and the stars are beginning to show.

    As Sgt. Detective “Joe Friday” (Jack Webb) of the old TV Series “Dragnet” would retort upon questioning a witness, “Just give me the facts, Ma’am. All I want is the facts.” So here they are.

    From our Physics 101 Textbook: All physical matter exists in three (3) states: Gases, Liquids and Solids. Hold this thought.

    Our Chemistry 101 Textbook was divided into two (2) Sections: Inorganic and Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is dedicated to the properties of carbon, and in particular the C-H (carbon – hydrogen) bond and its chemical interactions. It is so important as to warrant its own science. There’s Carbon ….. and there’s everything else!

    Carbon compounds all occur in nature (predominantly in the earth) in all of its states as gases, liquids and solids. Due the energy content of the C-H bond they are all potentially direct heating fuels, or for the creation of other forms of energy, in particular electricity.

    What primarily differentiates the states of fuels is their “Energy Density”. (How much energy is contained in a comparable volume of material?) Therefore, as naturally occurring heating fuels they are:

    1. Gases: Natural Gases are the lowest density fuels.
    2. Liquids: (All Petroleum) Heating Oils are mid-density fuels.
    3. Solids: Coal is a mid-density fuel, comparable to oil, but solidified.

    There could be another category of “Renewable Solids”, made up of surface harvested fibrous materials such as Wood, Peat, Corn Stover, Peanut Shells, etc. These have much lower energy densities, somewhere between gases and liquids. You might consider these as “fuels of opportunity”, based on locales.

    None of these fuels as harvested below or above the ground can be directly converted into a heating fuel without further processing. They must be economically converted and moved to their points-of-use. This takes energy in varied forms, depending upon their specific fuel attributes.

    The Gases:

    Natural Gas is the predominant subterranean gaseous fuel and can be directly combusted for its heating value. Distribution and safety are the primary considerations.

    Having no smell, a trace gas must be added to all fuel gases for detection. That “stink” is a life saver! Gaseous explosions are memorable ones indeed.

    Natural Gas must be piped to its point-of-use. This piping infrastructure is large, extensive and expensive, supporting the movement of huge volumes of a very low energy density fuel over long distances. As a “distributed” fuel (similarly with electricity) these costs are burdened onto your energy bill, typically along with additional service and maintenance charges.

    IMPORTANT NOTE: Whenever doing fuel cost comparisons, you must solicit an estimated billing for Natural Gas and Electricity Service. The “Per Therm” or the “Kilowatt-Hour” (KWH) fuel unit cost IS NOT YOUR FUEL BILL! Locally (NH) we factor (multiply) by 1.5 to 2.1 seasonally for an estimated billing.

    Liquid Propane (LP), Liquid Natural (LNG) and Compressed Natural (CNG) Gases are concentrated, higher energy density fuel products achieved by composition, chilling and/or compression of gases into a tanker or tank for distribution. As such these become “delivered” products that are billed by-the-gallon or by-the-tank only.

    There is a significant amount of energy required to transform gases into usable liquid products, thus a much higher unit cost. Delivery costs related to tanker-to-site-tank or individual “bottle” deliveries are also factored into the unit cost.

    An on-site stored energy gas source must also be weighed, where applicable.

    All gases can be combusted very efficiently utilizing the latest “condensing” technologies. These are routinely 95+%. It must be accentuated however that the equipment investment is costlier than alternatives and must be factored.

    The Liquids:

    Petroleum Fuels (Carbon-based) being liquids have an inherent advantage over their gaseous or solid cousins. They can be pumped, poured, piped, tanked or transported with less energy and at substantially less risk. Only bulk barging or training of coal can compare, and then only to bulk use sites.

    Petroleum as extracted is a varying mixture of liquid and gaseous carbon-based products, readily separated by heating in a “Distillation Column”. Gases rise to the top and Tar sinks to the bottom. All are “skimmed” at their various levels. This is a relatively simple “first pass” process, but yields a ratio of products.

    The C-H based chemistry yields more. By introducing selective products under heat and pressure you can “polymerize” (chain them together) to make denser, heavier products or “fractionalize” (break them apart) to make lighter and gaseous products. Very high yields of usable fuel and lubricant products result.

    Heating Oil fuels combust efficiently in a modern, atomizing power burner. Peak is about 87% efficiency, depending both upon the appliance and the composition of the oil itself. Natural contaminants such as nitrogen and sulfur preclude higher values. Recent “Bio-Heat” Oil development, blended from harvested, carbon-based stocks will improve combustion efficiency somewhat. This along with “Fluidized Bed” and similar technologies promise even higher future combustion values.

    The Solids:

    Coal: Our discussion of C-H based solids must necessarily be limited to Coal. There are two (2) major derivatives, namely anthracite and bituminous, but energy-wise they are arguably similar. Functionally they process and handle much the same. Anthracite is the preferred variant in volume combustion applications, however.

    Coal requires considerable extraction and granulating energy, offset by the low material cost in situ. It bulk handles and transits readily and inexpensively, but its combustion characteristics relegate it to continuous-fire applications. Thus it predominates in electric generation. It handles very safely as well. When have you ever heard of a coal train catching fire?

    The Renewable Solids:

    Referring to our prior mention of these predominantly fibrous, harvested fuels, suffice to say that only wood is regionally viable and a great “sweat equity” fuel. It is also a natural by-product of our wood-harvesting industry. To quote that old New England adage: “Wood warms you twice”. We don’t foresee any significant deforestation resulting.

    Further, the quoted lower efficiencies for wood are aggravated by the need for moisture content control (air or kiln drying) and necessarily long and moderately controllable firing cycles. It is truly only a “fuel of opportunity”.

    The Current Heating Fuel Situation:

    By “situation” we mean what economical fuels are viably available and where are they located? The “what” and the “where” are inevitably linked.

    By any measure the United States is most bountifully blessed with all resources, with the least being not only our current heating fuels, but our future ones!

    The near-term picture is punctuated by our excesses of both natural gas and petroleum (oil) that have depressed heating fuel pricing dramatically. Despite a depressed economy a fervent effort is on to convert particularly oil-fired installations at all levels to natural gas, where available. We have within the past two heating seasons seen incremental fuel cost crossovers of oil and natural gas within the $45-48/bbl crude oil range.

    Natural Gas and Petroleum have become so plentiful in fact that we are net exporters of both fuels. The “World Price” of 4 to 5 times our domestic of Natural Gas in particular is just too good to ignore. It won’t hurt our trade imbalance either.

    It is no understatement that “fracking” (hydraulic fracturing) as touted in the technical journals is likely the most significant American Invention since the Computer. The world energy picture has changing dramatically, and for the good. This technology is applicable to both gas and oil exploration and production.

    We currently have about 50,000 miles of fuel pipelines operating in the U.S. The Canadian Athabasca (Oil Sands) extension known as the Keystone Pipeline is happening along with the Bakken Basin and others. Several U.S. and one (1) Canadian pipeline(s) are being reverse-flowed to support both this and the new Greater Mid & South West Fields. We are currently exporting some highly refined oil products to Europe from the East Coast. Delta Airlines recently purchased a New Jersey refinery for its dedicated jet fuel production. (Smart move!)

    We are now at oil parity and less subject to the fickle “World Oil Market” (OPEC). As we expand the ball game will change significantly. To accentuate this point: The current price of natural gas (energy-wise) is equal to an oil barrel-price of $15, or a gasoline price of less than $1.50 per gallon. Will we get there? Unlikely, but we are heading in that direction. The current barrel-price of $45 is expected to stabilize, barring world influence.

    Thus, the current and near-term heating fuel situation is substantially “business as usual” with a notable sag in heating oil pricing with natural gas applications expanding disproportionately. Heating oil cost is crossing over with natural gas, even as a delivered vs. a distributed product. Sharpen your pencils when you shop!

    Coal remains in plentiful supply! Without addressing the EPA Regulations, etc. it remains our significant electric power generation fuel as well as a selective heating fuel. It is a bargain where natural gas is not available, if you can utilize it. Note: We are now exporting coal to Asia and Eastern Europe.

    The “Crossover Fuel” Period: (the term is ours – and at our risk?)

    The disparity in natural gas supplies and pricing vs. the oil supply limitations and volatile pricing is breeding an era of “crossover fuels”. These will virtually all be based on Natural Gas in both gaseous and liquid states as a seed fuel. It will be combined with other gaseous, liquid and solid fuels to create oil product supplements for the transportation and in lesser degree the heating markets.

    This fuel availability phenomenon will precipitate a series of these products within a relatively compressed time period. None of these are “rocket science”, merely scaling existing technologies as market opportunities are presented. The following are just a few of these, but the likely leaders:

    1. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): As a potentially more broadly applied transportation fuel, it is a real winner. Currently being used in Utilities Service Vehicles, its logical and economic extension to all mid-range (up to 200 mi radius?) fleet and service terminals (private and government) will have a major impact. The offset loosens up general oil supplies, including heating fuels. (This is also BillionaireT. Boone Pickens’ new pet project. He took an admitted $150M “hit” on now abandoned Windmill Projects. Looking to make his money back in a hurry we presume.)
    2. Oil from Natural Gas: There are several processes that can make oil from plentiful coal as well as lesser feed stocks. We are not familiar with the specifics excepting that plentiful gas next to plentiful coal seems to be a bench-marking enterprise.
    3. Alcohol from Natural Gas: Alcohol as a fuel has not been mentioned thus far. Its current notable application is as a beneficial gasoline additive. A C-H-O (Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen) Compound, its energy-density is less than oils, but burns cleanly and very efficiently. It is a superb racing and automotive (E85) fuel IN A SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED ENGINE! Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) is readily manufactured by process combination of natural gas and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. CO2 is that nasty (?) stuff that creates global warming (?). Estimated Cost: $1.50/gal.
    4. Alcohol from Coal: Referring to Items 2 & 3 preceding there is a proven, scalable process for producing alcohol from coal using natural gas. Estimated Cost: $1.50/gal. Note: Alcohol is not currently used as a heating fuel. The cost and energy-density vs. heating oil has not been advantageous. Secondly, the current heating oil process equipment would have to be modified for its use. A diaphragm-style fuel pump or similar device would need to be employed for atomization. (Alcohols are not intrinsically self-lubricating.) Otherwise there is no process reasoning to negate its use as a heating fuel.
    5. “Fuels of Opportunity”: This is the Etcetera Bucket that contains all of those development projects that ultimately produce oils or alcohols. There is a seeming plethora of these with few in scalar production. Notable are the alcohol producers:
      • Corn Ethanol Fuel Supplements– Gasoline additives (E10, E15 & E85) production by farm co-ops and independents.
      • Cellulosic Alcohols– Produced from fibers and by-products of surface agriculture.
      • Oil from Coal– High Temperature/Pressure Steam Injection into Coal Process. No cost-to-benefit analysis available. South Africa produces.
      • Etcetera – The list goes on.

    General Note: There may be a few winners, but a lot of losers in this alternative energy crap shoot. The Natural Gas glut will skew the results.

    Summary Notes on Current Heating Energies:

    1. Natural Gas will generally predominate, where available.
    2. The Oil vs. Natural Gas pricing gap has closed, returning to par for the next few years.
    3. LP (Propane) Gas will remain a “fuel-of-choice”.

    Near-Future Heating Fuels:

    Looking forward near-term in heating fuels is a simple matter. More of the same. There is nothing save the Natural Gas to Oil cost gap closure to talk about. You must also accept that common Heating #2 Fuel is close to Diesel Fuel and necessarily follows its pricing trends. (#2 Heating Oil is dyed Red to deter Diesel Tax Skippers from using it in their cars and trucks. Fine resulting when caught!)

    The giant strides in efficiency made in the past ten years or so in heating appliances will be tempering. There’s just is not much more to be had in particular with gas efficiency to play with. Oil efficiency continues to address its composition problem.

    Recommendation: If you’ve been procrastinating, waiting for that world-beater boiler or furnace to appear, don’t hold your breath any longer. Invest in that 95% Condensing Gas or 87% “Triple-Pass” Oil Boiler. Stop “throwing good money after bad.”

    The Future Heating Fuel: Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    Surprised? You shouldn’t be. Electricity is the simplest and most efficient means of generating, distributing and utilizing energy. Problem is that we don’t generate it efficiently enough. We do a fair job with hydroelectricity and maybe geothermal, then we get loose. But even these are not really good enough.

    Back to Energy Density. The C-H Bond energy potential is the basis for all of our fuels. The energy-density of a Nuclear Fuel is 1 to 2 times 10 to the 6th power or 1-2 million times that of the C-H Bond! So why don’t we have cheap enough electricity? The wrong nuclear technology. We developed and then abandoned the correct one in the 1970’s in favor of uranium and plutonium based processes – to build bombs with their by-products.

    Thorium LFTR Reactors are being aggressively developed by Russia, China and India, with our technology! We must have them to project our Medical Isotope, NASA Deep Space Programs and as a DOD Modular Power Source at minimum. We’re looking at electricity costs of less than $0.01 (cents) per KWH! Check your current electric bill.

    For your Homework, read up on Thorium. It’s our future.

    Last Edit: 09/07/2017 pdm


  • HIGH-MASS VS. LOW-MASS BOILERS – THE ARGUMENTS

    It ultimately comes down to economics, as do most things. The current trend is to market low-mass (light-weight) boilers against the traditional heavy, high-mass cast-iron boilers. However, there are risks involved that must be assessed and quantified.

    New gas-fired appliances in particular have a technological efficiency milepost that must be considered. Specifically, the traditional tube/ribbon gas burner “dry base” boilers vs. the new condensing technology based low-mass boilers. These have a significant efficiency increase of 10+% in AFUE Efficiency Rating. Along with this however is a marked increase in appliance costs and operational risks — both quite important, yet never publicized!

    Stainless steel heat exchanger condensing gas units have been generally doing well service-wise. Cast aluminum heat exchanger units where supply water pH (acidity) has not been addressed at installation or at further maintenance points have had issues, to which we can personally attest. Given this reservation they have also performed reasonably well. Being quite sophisticated control-wise, one has to admire the engineered system integrity of these condensing gas systems. They certainly do flag service and maintenance issues with their sophisticated sensor complements!

    However, a disturbing pattern is emerging and the alarms are sounding in the trade journals and forums. Premature welded stainless heat exchanger leakage failures are being reported, some even “out-of-the-box” or within weeks of installation. A reduced anticipated installed system operating life of 15 years or less is being reported. The common cause for all should be water condition issues, but it’s also become manufacturing process integrity in some cases. Regardless, manufacturers are countering with stringent water condition qualification requirements within their typically 10-Year Pro-Rated Warranties. Not only do water conditions have to be measured and recorded at installation, but subsequent annual service procedures must re-qualify and record these values. Violate your water control guidelines and void your warranties!

    Oil-fired appliances on the other hand are a different animal, with combustion energy containment and management paramount in their design. Heating oil has over 60% more energy content per gallon than gases and can’t be technologically “modulated” (vary the firing rate) as with a gas appliance. Adjusting the output of an oil boiler is done by managing system temperature and/or by utilizing multiple boilers (MBS Systems) in larger installations. Therefore the oil boiler must be designed to perform at its maximum firing rate and within its design parameters. This is typically accomplished by using a cast-iron heat exchanger, and has been for the past two hundred years!

    Let us first disqualify any “dry base” welded-steel-fabrication (oil or gas) boilers from this discussion. Their overall field performance history in both thermal efficiency and longevity are well documented and recognized. They are sold on price alone. If you have one, you won’t have it for long — unless you were born under a lucky star! (They now barely meet D.O.E. Energy Star Ratings as well, and we hope for not too much longer.) Particularly disturbing to us is the poor field history of a nameless, highly publicized “high efficiency” gas-or-oil welded plate construction boiler. Their factory service record as emoted both directly by us, our trade service collaborators and their customers is damnable! Independent servicemen hate to touch them. Parts are product-specific, pricey and their eventual structural fate is predictable. We regard them as a “black eye” upon our industry. Beware of the sales pitch and do your homework! Always get customer referrals at a minimum (including for ourselves)!

    The “wet base” full-combustion-containment cast-iron oil boiler is the industry standard, with a solid performance history. They do however differ by both manufacturer and specific model design attributes that may affect life performance. If your oil boiler does not last at a very minimum 30 years or more, something is very wrong. We have replaced 100+ year old cast iron boilers with still beautiful castings, but you just couldn’t afford to feed them! You are more likely to see a cast-iron boiler section seal corrosion failure in particularly older units or hard-freeze icing fracture neglect than a “worn-out” boiler. Either situation is economically catastrophic though, requiring unit replacement.

    The high-mass vs. low-mass oil boiler argument ultimately comes down to design parameters related to material selection, application integrity and its performance under field conditions. The design safety factor of any boiler can be readily extended by simply providing more cast-iron and more water capacity. Works every time, but potentially adds cost to the boiler — or it should. Ultimately all materials degrade in use, whether it’s polymerization in plastics, embrittlement in metals, et al to a future point of failure.

    We must now extend the preceding arguments to contemporary oil & gas appliance issues. There are three emerging problems well documented in Heating Trade Publications that must be addressed:

    1. “COLD-SHOTTING”. A trade term that describes the condition where cold water is introduced into a hot boiler and thermally “shocks” the heat exchanger metallurgy. Single or cumulative events can result in catastrophic metal fracturing, seal and/or weld joinery failures. The “solution” is the additional piping and installation of a Boiler Return Water Temperature Control Valve to any condensing or low-mass boiler system. This is not an issue with a high-mass cast-iron boiler, nor has it ever been. Please note that Delta-T ECM Hydronic Distribution Technology properly applied negates this issue altogether.
    2. MAGNETITE ALLEVIATION. Magnetite is a magnetic, accumulating ferrous (iron) oxide (rust) present in boiler and supply water and attaches itself to internal boiler components, reducing in particular circulation efficiency. It has virtually never been an issue in a cast-iron (a naturally magnetite scavenging material) boiler, but here it is in very low iron content condensing systems. It can only be addressed with an integral, full-time Magnetite Filtration System – a significant cost and recurring maintenance cost addition.
    3. HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION. Contemporary practices of near-boiler and distribution (to radiation) piping are excessive, unwarranted and inefficient. The seemingly excessive piping and controls witnessed in new installations are so, REDUCING system efficiency and increasing operating costs. Low-mass and condensing boiler systems are disproportionately affected. Correct application of Delta-T ECM Hydronic Distribution Technology is a must for overall system efficiency.

    If you’ve read from our “Heating Blog Library” on this site, you would certainly qualify us as “High-Mass Boiler” advocates. We have additionally optimized our system design and performance by fully incorporating “Delta-T ECM Hydronic Distribution Technology”. It smooths hydronic system thermal demands while significantly reducing operating costs. In fairness this technology would certainly be very beneficial when applied to any low-mass boiler! In fact we consider it a prerequisite in any low-mass boiler installation. Please reference our new Packaged ΔT ECM Hydronic (FHW) Heating Appliance™ (Patents Pending – USA & Canada) on this site, interchangeably fired by OIL or GAS.

    Considering the aforementioned, we much prefer high-mass boilers with their “thermal damping” and reduced cycling characteristics. More iron mass and greater water content equals less burner cycling and ultimately longer component life. We have noted in fact (although we don’t necessarily advocate it) that ultimately a boiler maintenance cycle is now more dictated by the quality and amount of fuel oil passed through our Weil-McLain Ultra Series Triple-Pass Boilers than calendar cycles. Their heat exchanger passages are very open compared to prior generation two-pass units. Combined with the combustion quality of the Beckett NX Burner you generate very little ash accumulation. The same cannot be said of a nameless foreign boiler that seems to have high ash generation and more frequent maintenance calls. (We refuse to service them, by the way — hire the mechanic with that “Mercedes”.)

    Summarizing, weigh the operating characteristics of your particular hydronic system application before you select any boiler. In particular look at an intelligent hydronic distribution option such as the Taco® Delta-T ECM Distribution System. Just “plugging and playing” a low-mass boiler into your system may not play too long, nor too well.

    Additionally, a very timely read is our commentary on the just published 2019 Annual Boiler Report. “Reading between the lines” extracts the admonition by several contributors that despite their pursuit of highly engineered new product offerings, a well configured cast-iron boiler system is tough to beat economically. Should the market and particularly the consumer be taking note of this fact amidst the condensing sales hype? Judge for yourself …..

    (Please refer to our other blogs and appropriate external sources for detail related to this discussion.)

    Updated: 07/30/2019 PDM, Sr.

     


  • MAXIMIZE HEATING EFFICIENCY WITH A SINGLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Optimization of heating efficiency first requires determining your specific requirements. In general terms there are two or more distinct heating energy uses:

    1. Area Heating – Warming occupied areas fully, or selectively as living habits occupation or use may demand.
    2. Domestic Hot Water  (DHW)– Heated, potable (drinkable) for baths, showers, laundry and personal consumption.
    3. Special Uses – High temperature power washing, sanitizing, etc. (Refer to prior blog.)

    All of these requirements can ideally be met by using a hot water boiler system as a single, central source but the question arises of how to accomplish this efficiently. Specifically, varied heating demands that may range from continuous (?) DHW to very occasional (seasonal?) and selectable area warmth can become a challenge, particularly economically. However occasional demands can “lighten your wallet” to execute and maintain. Let’s address this problem systematically.

    Arguably the most important decision has to be your heating fuel selection. We cannot overemphasize this and the use of a Heating Cost Comparator to define your choice. (See our other blogs.) The standard unit of measure is the “Cost per Million BTU” expressed as a dollar figure. We use the NH-OEP Calculator for our area usage, but similar ones are available online. Use your current or projected new heating appliance efficiencies (AFUE) to get an accurate calculation. New Gas (Natural or LP) AFUE’s are typically 95% for top end (condensing) boilers and 87% for Oil Triple-pass boilers.

    The current and foreseeable heating fuel choices have become quite obvious in the northern climates:

    1. Natural Gas (where available) is the accepted baseline. But BE CAREFUL! Natural Gas is a “distributed fuel” (through a pipeline). Your actual bill will be considerably higher due to service and distribution costs added to your actual therm usage. Get a billing estimate from your gas provider first! (Our local multiplier is up to 2.0 or 100% added for your actual natural gas billing costs.)
    2. Heating Oil is the predominant fuel where natural gas is not available.
    3. Liquid Propane (LP) Gas is another option along with oil where natural gas is not available. LP has been used predominantly for domestic cooking and somewhat for DHW generation. As an area heating and DHW fuel it has traditionally been up to a 100% premium over oil. It is a heating option of choice in our experience.

    Note that solid fuels (wool, coal, peat, waste, etc.) have been purposefully omitted from this discussion. Insurers typically disallow continuous firing fuels using interior combustion equipment. External or “outdoor boilers” are “zero pressure” and require a “plate exchanger” interface with an internal power fired system to assure continuous heating maintenance. Verify these statements and weigh potential penalties for your particular situation.

    Consumers predominantly identify their area heating options as Forced Hot Air (FHA) Furnace or Forced Hot Water (FHW) Boiler Systems. Similarly DHW options as Electric, Gas or Oil stand-alone Water Heaters or from an immersion coil within a boiler. So therefore we usually find the typical FHA System with a stand-alone DHW Heater as a combination. FHW Systems usually provide DHW from an internal Immersion Coil, as previously noted. Currently we are seeing the emergence of the Indirect Hot Water Heater, supplied by a boiler as the efficiency choice.

    But in fact our heating options are more extensive. They include:

    1. Air Handler– A FHA Furnace without a fuel-powered heating source. Instead it has an internal large radiator (heat exchanger) that is externally supplied with energy from a FHW source (boiler).
    2. Unit Heater– A radiator with fan, typically found as an overhead heater in a garage, warehouse, etc. There are also variations of these with provisions for attaching ducting – otherwise similar to an Air Handler.
    3. Plate Heat Exchanger– Basically two (or more) mutually integrated radiators allowing the interchange of heat from varied sources. Source variation attributes may be pressure, temperature, flow rate(s) and composition. Their composition may be aqueous (or not) and adjusted for properties such as freezing and/or boiling resistance.

    Utilizing these latter devices allows us to employ higher efficiency or lower cost hot water generation sources (or both) for all our area and DHW heating requirements. We respectfully suggest that where a single, efficient energy source is desirable or necessary for continuous demand a FHW boiler should be employed. Further, that this source then be applied to all your structure’s heating demands with all the resources detailed within.

    The unmentioned physical fact is that utilizing water as an energy conductor is inherently and significantly more efficient than air. Thus an HVAC System (air heating/cooling) is less efficient than a hot water boiler (heating) coupled with an air handler (cooling) combination. This can be witnessed in their assigned AFUE values.

    So, let us wrap it up by considering some common scenarios for our FHW boiler system source:

    1. A Central HVAC (Heating,Ventilation & Air Conditioning) System Upgrade.

      • Upgrade the existing FHA Furnace with an Air Handler, if desirable, or
      • Install a FHW Heat Exchanger (radiator) into an existing FHA Plenum, plumb and rewire as necessary.
      • Install a “Chiller” in the Hydronic System to provide an A/C source.
    2. Existing or planned FHA System Upgrade – Same as 1. without A/C.
    3. FHA installation into a seasonal, incremental, unheated area or as an expansion.
      • Install an Air Handler or Unit Heater variation to suit.
      • Where freezing protection is desirable, employ a Plate Heat Exchanger with anti-freeze as necessary.
    4. Use a Plate Heat Exchanger to couple “incompatible” secondary heated water sources such as exterior wood & coal boilers, solar & geothermal loops, etc.
    5. In all cases, move to an Indirect Water Heater for efficient DHW generation.

    By the way, these new high efficiency boilers do not necessarily need a chimney. Condensing Gas Boilers typically use PVC pipe for venting and Triple-Pass Oil Boilers with Pressure-fired Burners can use a direct exhausting vent kit.

    Have we run you out of options yet?

    Last Edit: 10/18/2018 pdm


  • CONDEMN THE GAS THIEF IN YOUR BASEMENT — UPGRADE YOUR LNG/LP HEATING APPLIANCES!

    That subtle hissing from a constant-piloted gas furnace is continuously wasted energy. The same applies to constant-piloted gas water, pool and other heaters as well. Similarly, being vented into a chimney accentuates these losses by pulling heated air through these appliances.

    They are certainly becoming fewer and further between — haven’t run into one in a couple of years, until this week again. Furnace looked good, having lived in a nice, dry cellar for many years. (Moisture is the nemesis of hot air furnace systems.) That hiss is even soothing to the neophyte, until the gas bill comes in.

    In our experience the numbers are very compelling, considering the efficiency advances in “Condensing Gas” Appliances as to question the motives for their continuing existence. These 70% AFUE range “gas suckers” are being replaced by 95% AFUE range appliances. The last one we changed a few years ago netted a solid 45% annual fuel reduction. Combine this with the Tax Credit Incentives currently available and you have a sure bet!

    Diss the Hiss!

    Last Edit: 10/10/12 pdm