• Tag Archives Natural Convection
  • HYDRONIC (FHW) HEATING OPTIMIZED – “Going Back To Nature?”

    A primary tenet of Industrial Engineering is: To properly justify a process change you first optimize the existing process, then define the proposed process and make your CBA’s (Cost-Benefit-Analyses) for both. From weighing these you will then derive your best course of action. Speaking from painful experience as a Manufacturing Process Engineer, you will make this mistake only once. Somewhere in a dark corner of a semiconductor facility (or hopefully a scrap pile) lies my personal ill-advised, sophisticated process equipment humiliation!

    The makings of similar embarrassments are appearing within the hydronics heating industry. Hydronic component suppliers can be placed into three primary groups: boiler, distribution and radiation providers. They correspond to the three basic elements of the hydronic heating process. Component suppliers define the scope and applications of their products within a heating system, but that’s all. History and physics now become excellent teachers.

     A century ago there were two competing water-based energy heating methods, Gravity Hot Water and Steam. Both were based upon the natural (gravitational) convection attribute of water in the liquid or the vapor state, respectively. Energy distribution from a boiler to radiation required no external energy, only variation of the fuel supply ….. more heat, more fuel. Powered burners and thermostats were added for control. Pumps (circulators) doomed gravity water by adding zone management while reducing costs. Thus the modern hydronic heating system evolved.

    I’ve had the benefit of “playing with pipes”, beginning as a teenager within our family heating business for over 65 years while pursuing a paralleled hi-tech engineering career. (You can’t raise ten kids even on an engineering day job.) So while doing hydronic work “on the side”, so to speak, hydronic evolution followed me. My “engineering hat” always questioned why natural convection shouldn’t be an asset rather than a flow-checked nuisance. The old “gravities” were so simple!

    Post-engineering “non-retirement” provided time to aggressively play with hydronics. My “motor head” also makes me analogize heating systems with automobiles, i.e. the boiler being a pure “heat engine” with air, fuel and ignition for example. So when the delta-t circulator came along, there’s the “automatic transmission”. Now what can we do with the drive-line (distribution)? Can we re-evolve the Model T Ford car as a hydronic “Model Delta-T Appliance” by incorporating natural gravity convection into delta-t distribution? Well, we can and we have …..

    The old Gravity Heating System featured a large boiler, proportioned larger piping and radiation, typically all cast iron and pipe. They were skillfully defined and installed, used no distribution energy and lasted almost indefinitely, a tough act to follow. Its modern contemporary uses a much smaller (albeit more efficient) boiler, features multiple, circulated zones with smaller piping and radiation. Arguably it trades off fuel efficiency and comfort convenience for some increased distribution energy and “sophistication”.

    The sophistication referred is almost entirely within the distribution element of hydronic heating systematization.This is the consequence of a component-driven marketplace, as prior mentioned. The contemporary build-in-place method of system installations relegates hydronic interconnection of boiler to radiation in particular as “The Plumber’s Playground” wherein there are few rules and little consequence. Every system differs in a similar application, and therefore all perform differently in practice.

    If the objective is to provide overall hydronic system energy efficiency including electrical power consumption, freelancing must be both qualified and quantified in practice. Redefining near-boiler piping to optimize natural (gravity) convection with the boiler and integrating a delta-t circulator to refine hydronic delivery dramatically reduces distribution material and energy usage. Our now-patented “appliance” exhibits a typical 8 to 13 Watts total distribution energy usage while heating, over 90% reduction depending upon the contemporary configuration. Coupled with a high-mass, cast-iron boiler to enhance gravity operation, it also exhibits a thirty-plus year economic and operating life, twice or more that of low-mass, condensing units.

    Further gravity convection enhancement is available within the appliance-to-zone interconnects. The “level & square, pipes everywhere” approach does not fly in a gravity world. Minimized, pitched piping to simple series and split perimeter radiation loops are ideal. Full port valving if necessary and fewest 90° fittings further contribute to minimizing head pressures and thus distribution energy consumption. It won’t win a beauty contest, but it will win the race.

    Our 2,700 sq. ft. personally built (1970) raised ranch home has been our gravity test stand. An indoor wood boiler was convection-coupled to the cast-iron, flow-checked supply and circulator returned 3-zone “oiler” back in 1975. Multi-mode, multi-fuel operation also permitted completely unpowered, manually adjusted flow check wood gravity convection heating. As an example some years ago up here in “Frostbite Falls, NH” we were powerless from a severe ice storm for 10 days. A mere inconvenience for us ….. just feed it wood and adjust the valves.

    We currently have a series of up to six-year installed appliance “Beta Sites” that have now aggregated over twenty-five years service with no system-related calls! Two oil-contamination incidents did occur and last year a power line short-circuit blew out every control on a system. Our appliance is comprised of all standard, domestic trade components, so it was restored within the day.

    Our “appliance economics” haven’t been mentioned but are profound. Very significant complexity, material/labor content reduction and extended operating life vs. traditional architecture eclipse contemporary materials and methods. This observation was similarly but subtly affirmed in the 2019 Annual Boiler Report by several contributors opining that in effect it’s still hard to beat the economics of a well designed and installed cast iron boiler system. Their commentary and our natural (gravity) convection appliance development experience confirm that the existing, i.e. the “pre-condensing” process has yet to be optimized, to our potential peril. But try to find trade journalism and process development efforts to the contrary!

    So, is history due to repeat? That is, will a hydronic “Model Delta-T” displace this industry’s “Carriage Makers”, or will there be yet another technical “skeleton” in my closet?


  • OIL HYDRONIC HEATING IS CHEAPEST – For The “Smart” Consumer

    The assumption is that natural gas heating is historically cheaper than fuel oil, witnessed by the continuing conversion rate of oil to gas. The arguments forwarded are several, most notably that “natural gas (and propane) burn cleaner”, are “less expensive” than oil and therefore “more efficient”. All of these points are true in some context, but what is excluded has become significant to the discussion. Namely, heating system efficiencies and fuel cost differentials are narrowing the gap. Exactly how and by how much are the issues.

    An old New England adage comes to mind: “You can either raise the roof or lower the floor” to gain more space. Applied to heating you increase the efficiency of your appliance or lower the cost of your fuel ….. or do both, as we will contend.

    First, let’s begin by “raising the roof” of heating energy creation efficiency. Here again, hydronic (hot water) boiler efficiencies have increased significantly with AFUE Rating increases of over 10% for gases and half or less that for fuel oil. Good numbers at present are 95% AFUE for gas and 87% AFUE for oil “top end” appliances. More specifically these are Condensing Gas and Triple-Pass Oil Boilers. Now let’s get in a little deeper.

    There are three basic elements in any hydronic heating system:

    1. Heating water (a boiler),
    2. Moving heated water (distribution), then
    3. Heating the environment (radiation).

    The contemporary presumption is that the Boiler DOE %AFUE Rating defines heating system efficiency. This is patently untrue on its face. Distribution and radiation efficiencies must be considered to determine an aggregate value. Radiation by type and deployment also affect distribution configuration and complexity. The ensuing “middle ground” between the boiler and radiation we cynically denote as “The Plumber’s Playground”. Herein appears a relative maze of pipes, fittings, circulators, controls and wiring connecting A to B with artistic “free expression”. Thus that new, “pretty piped”, complex heating system despite saving some fuel is an electrical energy hog and a serviceman’s “friend”.

    A hundred years ago we had the Gravity Hot Water Heating System. It was utterly simple, had no moving parts and was operated by manually regulating a fire under the boiler. Powered coal stokers, oil or gas burners were later added with a room thermostat for automatic heating. It was abandoned upon introduction of the hot water circulator and zone valves for installation and operational flexibility and remains with improvements to date. However the natural (gravity) convection attributes of yore are present in degree within “modern” hydronic systems and necessarily controlled with valving.

    Recent introduction of the Delta-T ECM Hydronic Circulator prompted and enabled us to effectively recreate a Neo-Gravity Hydronic Heating Appliance. Functionally it is akin to “putting an ‘Automatic Transmission’ on a Boiler”. Hydronic distribution energy is typically reduced by over 90% of contemporaries. Convective flow is finitely controlled by the Delta-T ECM Circulator like “paddling a canoe with the current” ….. virtually effortless! Coupling to a high-mass, cast-iron boiler to reduce burner cycling and system operating temperature increases boiler AFUE substantially, depending upon the site radiation and heating demands. These claims are substantiated within our U.S.P.T.O. Patent Submission, now affirmed by a recent Notice of Allowance. Canada to follow. Check out our website www.BoilersOnDemand.com for details.

    So, first upgrade your aging, less efficient boiler to a post-modern, high-mass, delta-t ecm distribution appliance, such as ours.

    Second, let’s “lower the floor” by changing your fuel oil buying habits! The “dirty little secret” is that you have options, many options. You don’t just keep buying from “Good Old Joe” because he’s nice and “takes good care of me”. Or pick an oil dealer out of the phone book, your neighbor recommends, or whatever. Not unlike automobile “gas station hopping” the oil dealers have a back door pricing system too, called Consumer Fuel Oil Co-Operatives. They typically aggregate fuel demands of their memberships and solicit seasonal quotations for heating fuel. To give a comparison, we and our participating customers have realized a 25 to 40% reduction over retail pricing in our area (S.W.N.H.) throughout this 2019-2020 Heating Season, for a $25 Annual Fee! Smarten up folks!

    Now, let’s dispel the notion that natural gas fuel is cheaper than oil, using our one-two strategy as detailed above.

    All heating fuels are rated by their “Cost Per Million BTU” as displayed in the NH Climate Audit Heating Cost Calculator, our personal choice of many available. We have used this calculator continuously since 2016 during our appliance development. In all but one winter cycle oil has been a cheaper heating fuel than natural gas. Oil has also eclipsed all other fuels listed for the past two years. This apparent natural gas discrepancy with oil must be first be explained.

    Natural gas and electricity are “distributed” fuels, i.e. they are necessarily delivered through pipes or wires to the point of use. Distribution and service charges are necessarily applied to these fuels, regulated by a State Utilities Commission. Therefore your actual bill is fuel cost plus delivery charges. Dividing the fuel cost into your total bill defines your Service Burden, expressed as multiplier of 1.x to 2.x. Our local multiplier is typically just over 2 at present. Therefore the Natural Gas Cost Per Million BTU must be multiplied by your Service Burden to obtain your true fuel cost.

    Oil and LP (Propane) on the other hand are liquid “delivered” fuels. You pay upon delivery and they are dropped into your oil or gas tank or as gas bottles in your yard. Similarly with the solid fuels: coal, wood & wood pellets. No additional charges apply. This distinction is very important.

    Playing with the Heating Cost Calculator, let’s load in 87% for oil & 95% for both natural gas & propane per prior. Load in $1.586 per gallon (our current “Co-Op Price) for oil & press “Recalculate”. Now using a side calculator multiply your natural gas price of 8.74 by your Service Burden. If its currently over 1.505 oil wins. (BTW – Pity that poor propane guy!)

    If you want to extend your heating calculator play time, increment the item cost values for coal, wood & wood pellets until you equate each to $13.15 Per MBTU. This is the item pricing equivalent to oil heating. Great stuff to needle your neighbor who’s “saving money” while trying to keep warm with solid fuels. Of course avoid that Old Yankee that cuts all his own wood “for nuthin” and massages his woodpile year ’round. “Heats ya twice, ya know.”

    It must be added that Condensing Gas Appliances are significantly costlier to install with reduced economic lives than cast-iron boilers.

    The Heating Blog on our website offers a wide array of related heating subject articles.


  • WHAT IS A GRAVITY HEATING SYSTEM? – Gravity Convection Heating Revisited

    The three (3) basic elements of hydronic heating are heat generation (boiler), distribution of energy (pumps) and conversion to area warmth (radiation). Of these hydronic distribution is typically the least understood, generally misapplied and desperately needs revisiting!

    What is a Gravity Heating System? A century ago all water-based hydronic heating (hot water and steam) employed the natural gravity attributes of heated water and water vapor (steam) to distribute energy. NO DISTRIBUTION ENERGY WAS REQUIRED! These were effectively single-zone systems that could only be modulated by varying the energy input of the boiler and the radiation outputs using register dampers or steam radiator vents, respectively. Natural (gravity) convection of heated water underlies all hydronic distribution, yet is never considered in contemporary practice. So, check-valving is installed to negate its less desired effects.

    The introduction of electric circulation pumps in the 1920’s enabled forced hot water heating (FHW) and changed hydronics forever. Gone was the large, pitched piping and radiators, replaced with zoned heating and finned radiation. The heating market never looked back, and justifiably so. Lost however was “free” natural gravity convection effect that now had to be also controlled by using check-valving within the system.

    Early electric circulation pumps (circulators) were large, power consumptive and constructed of discrete components, i.e. motor to coupling to pump. We “old-timers” have vivid memories of failed couplings of varied types, seized and leaking pumps and smoked motors. The advent of wet-rotor circulators was like manna from heaven, reducing circulator issues with greater longevity and reduced power consumption benefits.

    Now the evolution and introduction of particularly Delta-T (differential temperature sensing) ECM Circulators projects hydronic distribution management to an entirely new level. The inherent integral instrumentation features and operational data display of delta-t circulators provide us with finite attribute identification and application control.

    The focus of our work has been to optimize the innate, but hidden contribution of natural gravity convection as both a distribution energy saver and a selective fail-mode feature in hydronic heating. As such the Delta-T ECM Circulator has been the crucial tool in the development of our “Neo-Gravity Delta-T ECM Hydronic (FHW) Heating Appliance™” (U.S. Patent 10,690,356, Canada to follow). We claim optimization of natural gravity convection within our boiler, near-boiler distribution piping with distribution energy requirements using a single, dedicated Delta-T ECM Appliance Circulator. Citing an automotive analogy, we refer to it as “putting an Automatic Transmission on a Boiler™”. This intelligent, variable speed circulator is effectively a hydronic CVT (Continuously Variable-Speed Transmission) in practice.

    Let’s go back again to that old gravity hot water heating system of a century ago. By comparison, contemporary hydronic heating systems have smaller piping with multiple zones for heating flexibility. The old “gravities” employed high-mass cast-iron boilers with larger piping to modulate heating supply, otherwise control was particularly difficult when using solid fuel firing such as with wood or coal. With generous distribution piping sizes and radiation elements gravity convection worked fairly well, and again with NO distribution power requirements!

    Properly piping a contemporary FHW system using a dedicated “Delta-T Mode” system circulator with complimentary low-energy ball-type zone valves vs. flow-checks yields great results! Transpose this configuration onto the old gravity system layout and you functionally emulate its performance as depicted in the following figures.

    The advantage is in applying natural gravity circulation to the contemporary upgrade. We have seemingly lost all trade skills in managing or enhancing gravity convection. No consideration is ever given to pitching, compacting and minimizing distribution piping in particular. Additional gains are available in radiation layout by using properly sized and configured perimeter series and/or split radiation loops. The 45° elbow fitting as an example saves 30% of piping and reduces head pressure significantly over a 90° elbow run. All this increased pipe volume and head pressure reduces the natural gravitational convection effect, not to mention increasing materials, labor and lifetime operating costs of the system.

    Our Delta-T Mode Circulator measures this head effect well via its wattage indicator. All of our single, dedicated system circulator Beta Site installs to date exhibit an 8 to 13 watt distribution power consumption with typical 4 GPM flow upon a 20° delta-t (adjustable) differential attainment. Compare this to 80 watts typical for each 16 gpm fixed-speed circulator or even 20 to 25 watts each for the new delta-p installs. With delta-t stabilization you can then witness circulation wattage steadily decay to half or less as natural convection contributes. We refer to this as “paddling your canoe with the current”.

    A secondary effect of gravity convection seems to be radiation heating profile modification, smoothing demand amplitude variation and increasing comfort. Some of the extended fuel savings we observe and the delta-t manufacturer claims seem to be due largely to this radiation profiling effect. Another contributor is the lowered system operating temperature effect of using a very high mass cast-iron boiler vs. contemporary low-mass units. Burner operation cycles are also significantly less frequent than the system it replaces, increasing component lives.

    A personal cast-iron boiler observation: This author has never replaced a “cold shot” cracked or magnetite impaired cast-iron boiler in over sixty-five years of hydronic and steam installations! Perhaps a discussion for another day, but have we also “thrown the baby (cast-iron boiler) out with the bath water” to cite the old adage? Commentary in the recent 2019 Annual Boiler Report would seem to support our contention. Read our “reading between the lines” blog on this report.

    Finally, the combination of higher boiler thermal mass with enhanced gravity convection extends selective fail-mode heating continuity substantially. Recently and four years prior our Beta Site #3 experienced a fail-safe circulator interruption. The latter an over-current condition from a voltage surge “fail-safed” its operation. In both instances the condition was not discovered for an estimated 2 to 3 days, despite significant heating demand. Neither living area heating nor indirect DHW generation were affected. Second level heating reduction was eventually noted, as it was prior. The customer called and we reset the power switch over the phone to resolve. It is also noteworthy that we have had no system related service calls in over thirty aggregated operating years on our multiple Appliance Beta Sites!

    In closing, the contemporary excesses and misapplication of hydronic distribution are troubling to this author. If tradesmen are promoting their prolific  system distribution piping efforts as efficiency measures they are most sorely misdirected and possibly even deceitful. Witnessing customers proudly showcasing excessively installed systems or trade supplier contests for the “prettiest system” installation pics are also particularly disconcerting. Trade practices and hence consumer perceptions need challenging. Are we selling parts and labor ….. or performance?

    Perhaps it is time for an engineered “appliance” approach (as ours) to rein in “The Plumber’s Playground©”.

    Updated 08/03/2020 P.D.M., Sr.


  • BOILERS ON DEMAND LLC

    Be advised that as of April 10, 2017 Boilers On Demand is registered in the State of New Hampshire as a Limited Liability Corporation. We are classified as a “Manufacturer, Heating Equipment (non-FHA)”.

    Our mission is to provide our “ENHANCED CONVECTION, DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURE MANAGED, HYDRONIC HEATING APPLIANCE” (U.S. Patent 10,690,356 – Canada to follow) to the Residential Hydronic (FHW) Heating Market. We are naming our primary product the “Neo-Gravity Hydronic Heating Appliance™”.

    Fully integrating Delta-T ECM Hydronic Distribution Technology by Taco Comfort Solutions® with our proprietary near-boiler piping system enables a functional Hydronic (FHW) Heating Appliance. Further incorporating our lengthy experience with Natural Hydronic (Gravity) Heating built upon a Weil-McLain® UO Series (very) High-Mass, Triple-Pass Boiler provides a simple, durable and efficient heating system.

    Our modular, application-specific appliance capability provides the heating market with a value engineered alternative to the contemporary loose-piece, build-on-site trade practices. The predictable price-performance of a multi-fuel capable “Made In America” appliance is particularly attractive to the heating consumer.

    We are currently marketing our product via our dedicated website www.BoilersOnDemand.com to Fuel Dealers, Tradesmen, Contractors, Installers and Consumers within the USA and Canada. Extensive planning, installation and maintenance resources are currently available on our website along with a deliverable Power Point Presentation on our technological effort.

    There is now a real alternative in the Residential Heating Market and we encourage you as a consumer or trade participant to explore “What is a Gravity Heating System?”.

    Updated 08/29/2020 P.D.M., Sr.


  • DELTA-T ECM HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION – Really “Raising The Bar”!

    Heating and moving water (hydronics) is recognized as the most efficient method of creating and distributing warming energy. From the Roman Baths to Gravity Piped Hot Water Systems of a century ago natural convection of heated water provided a simple, if seemingly temperamental solution.

    Adding pumps (circulators) to heating water distribution has forever improved comfort an flexibility. However, their application has been less than ideal, utilizing only fixed-speed/capacity circulators, typically poorly applied to residential heating in particular. Using a “one size fits all” approach and swapping sizes to effect results has been a thorn to the trade suppliers.

    Applying switchable, multi-speed circulators has provided an interim solution to poor matching options. Further, measuring actual circulator zone supply and return temperature differentials with an infrared thermometer while selecting speed(s) has provided a more efficient solution. It’s still a less-than-ideal result, with a cost premium.

    The Delta-T (Differential Temperature Sensing) Variable Speed Circulator has been around for some years now, providing the idealized solution to heating distribution flow management. It has arguably fallen far short of its potential, burdened by high initial cost, audible operational “whine” and low speed “growling”. Occasional high load torque stalls further contributed to its unknown nature.

    Enter the ECM (Electronically Commutated Motor), the latest iteration of the “intelligent” Delta-T Variable Speed Circulator. The “heir apparent” is whisper quiet yet powerful, dramatically reduces power consumption with no “torque stalls”, displays great functional data and at a palatable cost. Taco® Comfort Solutions of Cranston, RI also claims up to 15% fuel savings along with an 85% energy drop with their 00e Series VT2218 ECM Circulator, pictured.

    Author’s Note: We former High-Tech Process Engineers were applying “Stepper Motors”, the ECM predecessors to Machine & Process Control over 40 years ago. Finally, the Heating World is getting some real tools to work with!

    The Delta-T Circulator is and has always been marketed as an enhanced replacement for a fixed or multi-speed circulator. Have a zone performance issue? Substitute a Delta-T and “tweak” it in. Problem fixed, within the constraints of the zone design and a 3X cost premium of course. This latest (and supplier exclusive) Taco® VT2218 is being very well received, breaking the “Cost-Performance Stigma” of its predecessors and counterparts. We love it!

    VT2218+ZV ultra-oil-1 HTPSuperstor

    As “High-Tech” Process and Manufacturing Engineers with a Heating Discipline we (Mercier Engineering) have further projected the Taco® Delta-T ECM VT2218 as a Dedicated System Circulator, the acknowledged INDUSTRY FIRST to do so! Reviewing its Technical Specifications the VT2218 is ideally suited to residential/light-commercial heating system applications, given that operational attributes can be accommodated. These are namely:

    1. Providing uniform heating performance under normal multi-zone demands.
    2. Simultaneously servicing an Indirect Water Heater (IWH) to optimize both domestic hot water (DWH) and heating water generation.
    3. Prioritizing DHW generation within varying area heating demands.
    4. Accommodating differential temperature branching such as radiant zone(s).
    5. Satisfying both current and future (planned expansion) demands without an efficiency penalty.
    6. Providing beneficial System Service & Reliability projections.

    Over the past fifty (50) years we have installed and monitored “conventional” hydronic (FHW) heating systems, focusing on component selections, their performance and service levels. This continual qualification process has yielded a set of Premium American Components with “zero-fail” histories, at the expense of other NAFTA, Euro & Chinese products.

    Recognizing the potential of Delta-T Hydronics Distribution as previously noted, about five (5) years ago began a concerted effort to select and qualify the dedicated system circulator application. Our independent work using three (3) successive iterations of Taco® VDT, HEC and VT/00e Products has yielded not only a viable, but a superlative Packaged Delta-T ECM Hydronic Heating Appliance™. Its performance is principally based on our Proprietary Near-Boiler Piping System that constitutes the basis of our Non-Provisional Intellectual Property Protection Submission (Patents Pending – USA & Canada).

    So what began as an “evolutionary” effort to apply a newly available “tool” in the resultant has approached a “revolutionary” one. Our Packaged Delta-T ECM Hydronic Heating System™ is actually a FHW Heating Appliance, an industry first! Placing the Delta-T ECM Circulator into a full hydronic (FHW) heating system we slogan as“Putting an ‘Automatic Transmission’ on a Boiler”. Coupling “intelligent” Taco Zone Sentry®valving (pictured), a “high-mass” boiler (Weil-McLain UOpictured)and an integrated IWH (HTP SSU45– pictured)dramatically reduce complexity and idealize hydronic system performance.

    In our introduction we referenced the “natural convection” (gravity heating) used by the Romans, et al that prefaced our “modern” hydronics. Our optimized Delta-T ECM System exhibits exceptional gravity convection qualities, continuing heating upon circulator disablement or with zone valve manual operation. Short of a full electrical outage significant gravity convection heating continues, providing a useful fail-safe protection feature.

    Now let us really “Raise The Bar”. Here is performance data taken from two (2) similar “beta test sites” in our grouping.

    100,000 BTUH System, Oil-Fired, 3-Heating Zones + IWH

    Attribute “Conventional” System Delta-T Hydronic System Comments
    System Efficiency (Est.) 87% (Boiler Only) 90++% (Aggregate) Combined Hydronic Efficiencies
    Mean Operating Temperature > 145°F (Est.) 132-140°F (Observed) Normal Heating Operation
    Distribution Power 165 Watts (Est.) 11-12 Watts (Observed) Equates to Taco® Claims
    Distribution Fuel Efficiency  N/A – 15% Consumption Per Taco® Claims
    Natural Convection  Minimal to Moderate Very Significant (Observed) Very Installation Dependent
    System Footprint < 35 Sq. Ft. 12 Sq. Ft. (Actual) Very Installation Dependent
    Construction/Life Low-Mass C.I. or Stl. + Copper High-Mass C.I. & Stl. Only  10 to 20 vs. 30+ Yrs. (Est.)
    Complexity/Maintenance/Skill Higher/Annual/Specialized Low/Bi-Annual/Standard Standard Controls Only
    System Installed Cost (Est.) $10,000+ (Est.) $7,500 (Quoted) Southern NH Region

    This is the new “Bar Height”.

    We challenge ANY Tradesman or System Installer to raise it.

    To Summarize:

    1. Delta-T ECM Hydronic Distribution is singly the most significant and cost-effective contemporary heating advancement.
    2. This technology is applicable to any fueled hydronic heating system with substantial packaging and cost benefits.
    3. System configuration using a Dedicated Delta-T ECM Circulator further reduces physical and technical complexity while idealizing hydronic performance.
    4. Our Packaged Delta-T ECM Hydronic Heating System™ is the first, true Hydronic Heating Appliance, considering its intrinsic architecture, performance and as-installed economics.
    5. This is the new Standard of Measure in Hydronic Heating.

    Author’s Note: Updated 06/12/2017